Reflecting on the method for converting heat into mechanical energy that the cold part I create by doing work I saw an untapped so far from me the opportunity for effective work - It would be better to replace expansion valve on "refrigerator"with a turbine (or piston / cylinder; generally speaking converter heat into mechanical energy) diagram (1a)( 1).
On both sides of the expansion valve system for redistributing heat ("refrigerator") there is a temperature difference (differential pressure) which is a prerequisite turbine to perform work. By doing this work converter of heat into mechanical energy (as well as all others who work in the method) achieved two important goals for us:
- Mechanical energy
The mechanical energy is our goal, and the cold part we need in the process of internal cooling in the absence of such a natural.
Let the operating cycle of the n-th working substance creating cold part by using cooler. Replace the expansion valve with a turbine. We now have a further beneficial force that is a result of the conversion of heat into mechanical energy.
Replacing expansion valve with turbine converts refrigerant in working substance. Now in the cold part (the last n-th cycle of the working substance with the lowest boiling point) have two working substances with a common cold part - the cold part of the system for redistributing heat.
In the cold part the working substance liquefies because of the low temperature generated in the expansion of refrigerant due to the compressor. In the warm part of the working cycle of the refrigerant already liquid working substance is heated with the same amount of heat which is taken away from him at liquefaction. Thus, after the heat exchanger in the hot part will have a liquid working substance having a temperature ½ of the difference between the temperature on entry into the turbine and its boiling point
Working cycle on refrigerant becomes neutral - no change in temperatures, considering that the same amount of heat is removed and transferred from refrigerant gas at working substance. Therefore the work of the compressor and turbine are the same - as the mechanical power is converted into heat in the course of operation of the compressor on refrigerant, so the same heat turbine is turned into mechanical power. Cycle on refrigerant agent is a neutral shade.
Energy balance on n-th working substance + refrigerant (provided that the turbines convert 50% of the heat into mechanical energy) will be:
A zero cycle – the "refrigerator"
A cycle in which 50% of the heat is converted into mechanical energy - the working substance
The outcome of the two cycles is a liquid working substance with a temperature 1/2 of the difference between its temperature before entering the turbine and then the heat exchanger in the hot part of the "fridge".
Thus, in the last cycle (n) working substance decelerated for some amount of heat as has become a mechanical energy, whereby cooled the previous(n-1) to allow the unit to operate.
Variant of еngine with two working substances (ammonia and ethylene in the case) - chart 3
In optimal load of the turbine and compressor at best we can achieve a temperature difference between input and output = (Tenv - Tbp) / 2
where : Tenv- temperature on environment;
Tbp - boiling point of the first working substance
The power will be expressed (ideally):
P = cm (Tenv - Tbp) / 2
where: c - specific heat capacity of the first working substance
m - mass of first working substance circulating for a given time
Note again: As with all engine variants of the external combustion - internal cooling method cold/s part create it beforehand using external force.