четвъртък, 25 юни 2015 г.

Let's burn hydrocarbons

Continued from previous post

I can add more operating cycles of substances with increasingly lower boiling points, such as waste heat of any previous heated the next to a temperature higher than its boiling point. On the last working substance will close his cycle with а cooler. So I could get somewhere around 0 Kelvin with helium or hydrogen - to where the materials can withstand . This will convert the heat from the combustion of hydrocarbons in the mechanical work in full - with each turbine (piston in the cylinder) the quantity of  waste heat will decrease (I think we can make 50% of the heat into mechanical energy of each working substance).
But what do we need to burn hydrocarbons, such as space and nature give us some average 290K?

"Rankine cycle layout" by ​Wikipedia (user:andrew.ainsworth) user [[:User:Andrew.Ainsworth:User:{{{3}}}|{{{3}}}]]. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png#/media/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png


  Some 100 degree difference between hot and cold part will probably be able to achieve. Well, the difference between hot and cold part using the heat from the combustion of hydrocarbons is very large (eg 790K ), respectively of the same capacity of the turbines will receive greater power. But hydrocarbons are not inexhaustible, and burning them is bad for the climate and nature.






вторник, 23 юни 2015 г.

Let's burn hydrocarbons

Continued from previous post

I will try to become more mechanical energy from our valuable heat produced by the combustion of hydrocarbons. Still hydrocarbons cost money and combustion affects the climate so we must be frugal. Will use the waste heat from the ammonia cycle to warmed R-41 to a temperature higher than its boiling point. A turbine (maybe piston in the cylinder) will add to turn half on the amount of heat seething R-41 into mechanical energy - chart 4.

"Rankine cycle layout" by ​Wikipedia (user:andrew.ainsworth) user [[:User:Andrew.Ainsworth:User:{{{3}}}|{{{3}}}]]. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png#/media/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png


It is worth recalling that the low temperatures of the working substances must be preset before launching the operation of the unit.
For the same capacity on turbine 3/4 of waste heat on diethyl ether which releases into the environment will become a mechanical force.

To be continued

понеделник, 22 юни 2015 г.

Let's burn hydrocarbons

Continued from previous post

It will become mechanical work from waste heat of the water cycle by using ammonia to close the cycle of diethyl ether. - chart 3.
"Rankine cycle layout" by ​Wikipedia (user:andrew.ainsworth) user [[:User:Andrew.Ainsworth:User:{{{3}}}|{{{3}}}]]. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png#/media/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png


Because ammonia is liquid at temperatures lower than nature can offer us, I would have to close the cycle of ammonia as the cooling ammonia vapor to liquefaction.Compressor on cooler will take the useful power. As mechanical energy producing cycles of ammonia, so will spending to close its cycle. The unit of this figure and unit of the chart 2 will be equally useful.

It is worth recalling that the low temperatures of the working substances must be preset before launching the operation of the unit.

But the topic to the burning of hydrocarbons did not think to end up here.

To be continued

неделя, 21 юни 2015 г.

Let's burn hydrocarbons

Mechanical work by burning hydrocarbons

I will discuss a few ways to get more of heat from the combustion of hydrocarbons. Taking into account that incineration is bad for the climate would be better to be thrifty.
In ordinary water Rankin cycle waste heat is too much, given the fairly high boiling point of water relative to the cold part – environment - diagram 1.
"<a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png#/media/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png">Rankine cycle layout</a>" by ​Wikipedia (user:andrew.ainsworth) user [[:User:Andrew.Ainsworth:User:{{{3}}}|{{{3}}}]]. Licensed under <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" title="Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0<p></p>">CC BY-SA 3.0</a> via <a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/">Wikimedia Commons</a>.

I will use steam to warm diethyl ether (308K b.p.) to be able to extract mechanical energy from its heat - chart 2. 
"Rankine cycle layout" by ​Wikipedia (user:andrew.ainsworth) user [[:User:Andrew.Ainsworth:User:{{{3}}}|{{{3}}}]]. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png#/media/File:Rankine_cycle_layout.png


It will use waste heat from the water cycle to produce mechanical energy. And we will throw a little bit of valuable heat.
I intend also to further decreased waste heat, but diethyl ether exhausts in general ability of nature to close the cycle and will need to use closed cycle as a result of work done.
How to  become a more mechanical energy from the heat from the combustion of hydrocarbons will discuss in the next post.

To be continued

събота, 13 юни 2015 г.

Cold reality - heretical thoughts

Reflections on the motive power of heat on the environment  and on machines fitted to develop that power


 I will formulate conclusions which led me the work on the external combustion engine which is driven by the heat of the environment.
The only way we can use the heat of the environment as a driving force is to create a cold part.  Cooling the cold part to have the required temperature difference so hot part on the engine to be the environment. To keep the cold part I need to heat isolate it from the environment. If I do not do it due to the heat exchange environment will warm the cold part. Because theoretically and practically can not turn all heat into mechanical energy will always have waste heat which will heat up the cold part. So I need to cool the cold part by cooler. As less amount of waste heat, so the little force it would need for the compressor on cooler to maintain the low temperature of the cold part. Small amount of waste heat will achieve by thermal isolating  the entire unit so that the process of work working substance to cool down and the amount of waste heat to decrease. Another obstacle for maintaining the low temperature of the cold part will be the inevitable leakage of heat from the thermal insulation. Practically we can not achieve 100% thermal insulation so that heat from the environment will pass through the insulation and warms the cold part. This heat will call it - harmful heat.
Effective unit will have when the sum of the quantities of waste heat and harmful heat at any one time is less than the amount of heat which the turbines (the pistons in the cylinders) are transformed into mechanical energy. Then I'll have enough power to keep the cold part. The difference between forces  that  generate the converters on heat into mechanical energy (turbines, pistons) and a force necessary to maintain the cold part will give us useful mechanical work.
When we have plenty of heat the cold part is important for us to receive mechanical power. We should strive waste heat and harmful heat  to be in small amounts, so to spend a small portion of the useful energy  for the maintenance of low temperature of the cold part.
Several decisions on how to convert heat into mechanical work, so the amount of waste heat to be a small part of the total heat input from  environment in the engine I described in my blog.  If we do well  with harmful heat we can achieve perpetual  motion .
Perpetual motion would be possible with a thermal insulating external combustion engine. The warmth of the environment will be the driving force and the temperature difference between the hot and cold part we create and maintain due to perform work. Perpetual motion of such an engine is provided by two pairs supporting one another physical characteristics:
1. The temperature difference is a prerequisite to perform work - By doing work we can create a temperature difference.
2. The heat is converted into mechanical energy - mechanical energy is converted into heat

By definition (Wikipedia) Perpetual motion is:
"Perpetual motion is motion that continues indefinitely without any external source of energy.This is impossible to ever achieve because of friction and other sources of energy loss"
Next follows a right conclusions:
"There is a scientific consensus that perpetual motion in an isolated system violates either the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics, or both" .... There is no dispute - true.
 BUT - each ONE isolated system can divide it into TWO isolated systems as:
1. Heat isolate one part of it to the other
2. Remove some amount of heat from one to the other
So we can "avoid" the laws of thermodynamics which apply to an ONE isolated system - we divide an ONE isolated system completely legally on TWO isolated systems.
Unit that converts heat into mechanical energy is in one part, and converts the heat from the other side into mechanical energy.
In one part the heat ultimately turns into mechanical energy - in the other part the mechanical energy ultimately converted into heat.

 Nor violate the laws of thermodynamics ... neither conversion of heat from one part to mechanical energy in the other part will stop.

I think that the cold reality will allow us perpetuum mobile.

But most important for us is to look at the method as an opportunity for renewable energy, one more opportunity to reduce the footprint we leave on the planet.

петък, 12 юни 2015 г.

Reduce waste heat

Two working substances -  ammonia (240bp) and R 41 (195bp) - diagram 5. Working substance on cooler - R14 (145bp). Prior we cooled the liquid R41 to its boiling point. After opening the valves and drive the pumps waste heat on ammonia cycle heated R41 to 238K. Ammonia liquefies and pumps it appear to be heated in the atmosphere to 290K. R41 works by the method of divided load and heat exchange between liquid and gaseous working substance. Cooler closes the cycle of R41 and  pumps sent liquid R41 back to the heat exchange with the gases ammonia, as quantization of the two substances are such that ammonia liquefies. Too small amount of waste heat after the work on R41 - Effective unit.

By the logic:
- Environment heated first working substance  to a temperature above its boiling point
- all other working substances work in an  heat isolated environment
-  each additional working substance with -low boiling closes cycle on previous
- substances work by the method / or not by the method of separately loading
  - on the last working substance closing cycle as a result of work done
We can fulfill unit with so much substances as nature allows us. After the working cycle of each substance waste heat remains in a small amount compared to the amount of heat which we turned into mechanical work.

сряда, 10 юни 2015 г.

divided load and work

Method will be effective and if we apply  "clean power"  to close the cycle - diagram 4c.
But if the compressor works for a cooler is more effectively.


понеделник, 8 юни 2015 г.

option for waste heat

Will draw the waste heat from the evaporator 3 to simplify things - diagram 1 (2).


 Liquefied gases collected with the liquid working substance coming out of the evaporator 3 and the heat exchange with the compressed refrigerant gas in the heat exchanger 25. One such option unit will be less effective than when part of the  waste heat returns to the evaporator as a chart 1.


 On the one hand the system for redistributing heat (cooler) must overcome a large temperature difference in this option. We also need to increase the circulation of liquid working substance in the cycle, which is another loss of useful power.

Let's go back to the philosophy of external combustion engine

Let's go back to the philosophy of external combustion engine - is required temperature difference between the hot and cold part to be able to convert heat into mechanical work.  Now we heat the warm part to have a temperature difference. I suggest that the temperature difference to be a result of work done - temperature difference between the hot and cold part we can create it as a cooling cold part. And to get efficient engine has the power we need to apply to create the necessary temperature difference at any time should be less than the force that generates the working substance.
Lets to think - how much is the heat which we can turn into mechanical work of a working substance with a given temperature? To be able to work  working substance must have a temperature -high from its boiling point. All the heat of a working substance which can be converted into mechanical work it is equal to the difference between  the temperature to which it heats the heat source up to its boiling point. Theoretically and practically we can make all this heat into mechanical work always remained  waste heat.
Let's perform work on the working substance as it cooled in the cold part to have a temperature difference and the engine running. To be an effective engine running on this principle should amount to heat is less than the amount of heat which has become into mechanical energy. This will achieve it by carrying out the process of converting heat into mechanical energy into heat - isolated environment - on the work process working substance cools. So like I can become a a large part of  the heat into mechanical force balance between the useful power and strength that must apply in order to maintain the temperature difference will be in favor of the beneficial forces. I think there is a way beneficial forces are more powerful than  the opposite and so we have an effective engine of which the temperature difference between hot and cold part is held as a result of work done.
We need to create conditions for the majority of the amount of heat on the working substance to turn into mechanical energy so that the waste heat to be a small part of the total heat quantity.
In my previous posts I have given some suggestions (It is better to begin consideration of the method with two working substances). I have a few more ideas that will present soon.
One primary method is to use more than one working substance. Each working substance can convert think ½ of the amount of heat into mechanical work. So the power we need to use for running the unit at any time will be measuring less than power produced by the working substances in their work.
Another method is to split the load and repeatedly perform work as the opportunity to make heat exchange between liquid and gaseous working substance in the course of his work. So I want to achieve a small amount of waste heat before closing the cycle of working substance. Less waste  heat = good balance between useful and opposite force.
To draw attention once again to something important - Every start we need to have set a low temperature of the cold part. This will use external power.

събота, 6 юни 2015 г.

To load repeatedly and exchanging heat to be effective unit.

If we resolve on working substance to expand (evaporates) without conducting enough work then to close the cycle we will need a large force to apply on it. At the same time there is no way to spread the load of single evaporator- turbine to decline in the course of work - to make the most of the opportunities of working substance. I therefore suggest that the same amount of working substance to perform multiple work as it passes from one evaporator to another with increasingly lower temperatures. In this way I can load the given amount of substance to work up and to take to cool and gaseous working substance due to heat exchange. A "cooler" loaded with a substance with a low boiling point(R41)  at the end. Its task is to cool the gas to liquefaction - Chart 4.


 When proceeding to closing the cycle the gaseous working substance will have a temperature close to the boiling point and the power necessary for compressor 5 will be smaller than the power received from the plurality of converters of heat into mechanical energy 7. Such a unit will be effective.

четвъртък, 4 юни 2015 г.

I guess we can close the cycle of the unit with a "clean power"

Let's apply a "clean power" on the last working substance (with the lowest boiling point) - gas is liquefied under pressure of compressor and not because of the low temperature generated by the compressor on cooler ( in my patent I use the old - System of  Redistribution on Heat , instead cooler).
Chart 1c -  two working substances and compressor.

My opinion is that such a unit would not be effective - Two forces useful – turbine, against one opposite - the compressor which is equal to two useful. The ratio useful to opposing forces - 2 to 2? (But just in case I have stated in the patent claims IoI )

Chart 3c - three working substances and compressor.


My opinion is that this unit will be effective - three useful energy (turbines) against the compressor - a ratio of beneficial to opposing forces - 3 to 2?

Accept objections (not only for versions with "clean power").

I patented and other effective (by me) variants of external combustion - internal cooling engine, which put them in my blog next week. There are interesting "thermodynamic - mechanical puzzles." I think it is worth a look dear readers.