четвъртък, 26 февруари 2015 г.

DEVICE AND METHOD FOR CONVERTING OF THERMAL INTO
MECHANICAL ENERGY CARRYING OUT THE PROCESSES IN
THERMO INSULATED MEDIUM
TECHNICAL FIELD


DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is a device which makes use of the thermal energy of the
environment converting it into mechanical energy in a thermo insulated working
medium using as a working substance a liquidified gas, e.g. nitrogen, neon,
argon, krypton, carbon dioxide, air and the like whose boiling temperature is
lower than the temperature of the surrounding medium.
The device of the invention can be driven with the heat of any sources including
the heat of the environment. When we use a standard heat source, it should heat
the working substance to a temperature which is higher than its boiling
temperature.
When the heat source is the surrounding medium, the device of the invention
consists of a thermo insulated part - reference numeral 7 in Figure 1, and a part
which is not thermo insulated. The device uses a closed cycle of liquid working
substance. The liquid working substance circulates through an external heat
exchanger 9 and the thermo insulated part. The heat exchanger 9 is not thermo
insulated so that it could exchange heat with the surrounding medium. In the
thermo insulated part the working substance passes through a number of
evaporators 3 and pumps 4. The pumps 4 drive the cycle of the liquid working
substance setting the direction from an evaporator a (called hereinafter first
evaporator) to evaporator b, from evaporator b to evaporator c….to evaporator x
(called hereinafter last evaporator). From the last evaporator (x) the liquid
working substance enters the heat exchanger 9. From the heat exchanger 9 the
liquid working substance enters the first evaporator (a) and thus the cycle
becomes closed. In the thermo insulated part there are a number of converters of
thermal energy to mechanical energy (CTEME) 1 (Figure 1) connected with the
evaporators 3. The pairs evaporator - CTEME are thermo insulated from each
other as well. The evaporators 3 evaporate a working substance and CTEME 1
convert the thermal energy in mechanical energy driving the driving shaft 8 with
a flywheel 11. CTEME are connected with the driving shaft by transmission
boxes 20. In the thermo insulated part the working substance is divided into a
liquid working substance and gaseous working substance. In the evaporators 3
are arranged heat exchangers 5 and 18 through which passes the gaseous
working substance. In this manner both physical conditions of the working
substance exchange heat with each other.
Thermal processes
Suppose the evaporators 3 and the external heat exchanger 9 both are filled with
a liquidified working substance. The temperature of the liquid working
substance in the evaporators decreases from the temperature of the surrounding
medium in the first evaporator (a in Figure 1) to the boiling temperature of the
working substance in the last evaporator (x in Figure 1). Let’s accept that the
temperature of the working substance in the external heat exchanger 9 is the
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same as the temperature of the surrounding medium. When we open the valve 2,
the working substance begins to evaporate in the evaporators 3. This starts to
drive the CTEME 1. CTEME 1 start to drive the driving shaft 8 and the shaft 8
starts to drive the pumps 4. The liquid working substance begins to circulate
through the evaporators 3 and the external heat exchanger 9. The pumps set the
direction of movement of the liquid working substance from the first evaporator
to the last evaporator – from a to b, c, …, x. Due to the evaporation of the liquid
working substance 3 its temperature decreases with each further evaporator
because the evaporators are thermo insulated. Together with the cooling off of
the liquid working substance cool off as well the gases exiting the CTEME 1,
due to the heat exchange between them in the heat exchangers 5 and 18. Thus,
with suitable load on the driving shaft, suitable output of the pumps and
sufficient number of pairs of evaporators and CTEME we can maintain the
temperature of the evaporators 3 to decrease from the temperature of the
surrounding medium at the entrance of the first evaporator (a) to the boiling
point in the last one (x). In Figure 1 is represented a device having 4
evaporators, 4 CTEME accordingly, but they could be more. At least there must
be two evaporators with two CTEME – a warm and a cold part for each device.
From the external heat exchanger 9 into the first evaporator (a) will enter a
liquid working substance having the temperature of the surrounding medium.
From the first evaporator into the second evaporator (b) will enter a cooler
working substance as a result of the evaporation in the first evaporator (a). The
temperature of the liquid working substance decreases with each further
evaporator due to the evaporation in the previous evaporator.
The first evaporator (a) is filled with the warmest working substance, therefore
the evaporating gases will have the highest pressure and the CTEME 1
connected with the first evaporator (a) must have the highest power. With each
further evaporator the temperature of the liquid working substance (as accepted
above) drops down to the boiling point of the working substance in the last
evaporator x. Each further CTEME 1 will have smaller power. The sum of the
powers of all CTEME 1 will give the power of the driving shaft 8.
Closing the cycle of the working substance
In the thermo insulated part the working substance is divided into a liquid
working substance and a gaseous working substance. In order to close the cycle,
we need to liquidify the gaseous working substance, to bring it back to its
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original condition, a liquid. The gaseous working substance will be liquidified
by means of a compressor 6 and/or the low temperature of the last evaporator
(x). The compressor 6 is connected with the driving shaft 8 by a transmission
box 20 in such a manner that the compressor 6 is driven by the CTEME 1.
The compressor 6 compresses the gases in the heat exchanger 5 of the last
evaporator (x) which is the cold part of the device of the invention. There the
gaseous working substance will be liquidified under the pressure of the
compressor and/or the low temperature of the evaporator. Through the pump 19
the liquidified gases are combined with the liquid working substance. For the
unit to work, we will arrange heat exchangers 5 and 18 in all evaporators 3
through which pass the gases so that the liquid and the gaseous working
substance exchange heat, the gases giving their heat to the liquid working
substance. The heat of both physical conditions of the working substance is
converted into mechanical energy by the CTEME. Thus, together with the
cooling off of the liquid working substance with each evaporator will cool off
the gaseous working substance due to the heat exchange between them. In the
last evaporator (x) both the liquid working substance and the liquidified gases
will have a temperature which is close to the boiling point. At the entrance of the
device of the invention we will have a liquid working substance with the
temperature of the surrounding medium, and at the exit – a liquid working
substance having a temperature which is close to the boiling point of the
working substance.
The power of the device in the ideal case will be:
P= cm(Tsur – Tboil)
wherein
c is the specific thermal capacity of the working substance
m is the mass of the entering (exiting) working substance for a given time
Tsur is the temperature of the surrounding medium
Tboil is the boiling temperature of the working substance.
Operation and importance of the pumps
The pumps perform only a mechanical work which is expressed in the
circulation of the liquid working substance through the evaporators and the
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external heat exchanger. They do not perform a thermo dynamic work on the
liquid working substance. The pumps are connected mechanically to the driving
shaft, the output of the first and last pumps being equal. The pumps between the
evaporators must have a decreasing output, bearing in mind that some quantity
of the gas evaporates in each of the evaporators. The difference in their output at
each of both sides of a particular evaporator must be as much as the quantity of
the liquid substance evaporated from the evaporator. The purpose of the
multitude of pumps is to set the pressure of each evaporator in accordance with
the heat of the liquid working substance, depending on its sequential position in
the sequence of evaporators with decreasing temperature. The obligatory
arrangement of a pump upstream and downstream of the evaporator sets its
pressure in view of the fact that the pressure in the evaporator works on both
sides equally – in the direction of movement of the working substance in the
pump on a first side, and in the opposite direction of the movement of the
working substance in the pump on the other side of the evaporator, the small
difference in the output of the pumps being ignored.
The heat exchange between both phases of the working substance can be
accomplished in three manners:
- by heat exchangers for a gaseous working substance with low pressure 5;
- by heat exchangers for gaseous working substance with high pressure 18;
- by heat exchangers for a gaseous working substance with low pressure 5
and ones with high pressure 18.
Method of heat exchange with heat exchangers with low pressure 5
The method of heat exchange between the liquid working substance and the
gaseous working substance with heat exchangers for low pressure of the gases
consists in using a device comprising heat exchangers 5, valves 13, temperature
sensors 12 arranged in the evaporators 3 and upstream of the heat exchangers 5,
compressor 6 and an adjustable reducing valve 10 (Figure 1a). At the end of
each heat exchanger 5 there is an adjustable valve 21.
The gas vapors exiting the CTEME 1 are conducted to the compressor. The
vapors of the first CTEME pass through the heat exchanger 5 to the second
evaporator 3. The gas from the first and second CTEME passes through the heat
exchanger 5 of the third evaporator. Generally the gas exiting CTEME passes
through the heat exchangers 5 of the next evaporators. Downstream of the last
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but one of the heat exchangers all collected gases plus the gas exiting the last but
one and the last CTEME enter the compressor 6. Under its pressure they are
liquidified in the heat exchanger of the last evaporator. After that through a
pump 19 the liquid is combined with the liquid working substance circulating
through the evaporators and the external heat exchanger. Thus the cycle is
closed.
In accordance with the readings of the temperature sensors 12 reading the
temperature of the gases upstream of the heat exchangers and the temperature
sensors in the evaporators the adjustable valves 21 are adjusted in such a manner
that the temperature of the gases exiting CTEME 1 is higher than the
temperature of the evaporator to which these gases will flow. This is achieved
by decreasing the output by means of the adjustable valves 21. Thus the gaseous
working substance conveys its heat to the liquid working substance in each of
the evaporators and the heat balance of the device is maintained – the
temperature decreases with each further evaporator.
Heat exchange method with heat exchangers 18 of the gaseous working
substance under pressure and a system for liquidifying of the gaseous working
substance (SLGWS)
According to this method the gases from CTEME 1 are collected and made to
enter the compressor 6 (Figure 1b). It compresses them in the heat exchangers
18 and the entering gases are liquidified under the pressure and the low
temperature in the heat exchanger 5 of the last evaporator (3x). For the most
effective carrying out of this method we will use a system for liquidifying of the
gaseous working substance (SLGWS).
Operation and significance of the system for liquidifying of the gaseous working
substance (SLGWS)
SLGWS consists of heat exchangers for gaseous working substance under
pressure 18 arranged in the evaporators 3 in the warm part of the device; a heat
exchanger 5 arranged in the evaporator (3x) in the cold part of the device; a
compressor 6; adjustable valves 21 arranged at the end of each heat exchanger;
an adjustable reducing valve 10 arranged at the end of the heat exchanger in the
evaporator (3x); valves 13; temperature sensors 12 arranged downstream of the
compressor 6, in the evaporators and upstream of each heat exchanger 18. Gases
collected from all CTEME 1 enter the compressor 6 without exchanging heat in
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the heat exchangers for low pressure 5. To this purpose we arrange by-pass
pipes connected upstream and downstream of each heat exchanger 5, and valves
13 which are configured in such a manner that the gaseous working substance
passes through the by-pass pipes and not through the heat exchangers as
depicted in Figure 1b. Thus the gaseous working substance is conveyed into the
compressor 6. Under the pressure of the compressor 6 the temperature of the
gaseous working substance is raised. In accordance with the readings of the
temperature sensors arranged in the evaporators 3 downstream of the
compressor 6 and upstream of the heat exchangers 18 and 5 we configure the
valves 13 in such a manner that the gases enter the first heat exchanger, the
temperature of the evaporator in which this heat exchanger is located being
lower than the temperature of the incoming gases.
In Figure 1b the gases flow into the heat exchanger of the first evaporator (3a).
This configuration is conditional. From there the gases consecutively pass
through all heat exchangers going forward along the chain of heat exchangers
18. In order to achieve the most effective operation we regulate in each moment
of time the adjustable valves 21 in such a manner that the system includes a
maximum number of heat exchangers 18 and the temperature of the gases when
they enter each of the heat exchangers 18 is higher than the temperature of the
evaporator in which is arranged this heat exchanger 18. This becomes possible
with the decreasing of the output of each adjustable valve. Thus the compressed
gaseous working substance exchanges heat with the liquid working substance,
the gaseous working substance passing heat to the liquid working substance.
In the last heat exchanger 5 the gases are liquidified under the pressure of the
compressor and the low temperature of the evaporator (3x), and through a pump
19 the liquidified gaseous substance is united with the liquid working substance
and in this manner the cycle becomes closed. In this manner we maintain the
thermal balance of the device – the temperature decreases with each consequent
evaporator.
Method of heat exchange between both physical conditions of the working
substance in the thermo insulated part with heat exchangers 5 and heat
exchangers 18
The method is carried out by a device comprising:
- Heat exchangers for low pressure of the gaseous working substance 5, and
10
- Heat exchangers for gaseous working substance under pressure 18 with a
system for liquidifying of the gaseous working substance (SLGWS).
The device can work so that the gaseous working substance exchanges heat with
the liquid working substance first by means of the heat exchangers for low
pressure 5 and after that, being compressed by the compressor 6, the gaseous
working substance exchanges heat with the liquid working substance by means
of the heat exchangers 18 (Figure 1).
For the best heat exchange between both physical conditions of the working
substance the heat exchangers should be constructed like serpentines positioned
in the evaporators.
Significance of the transmission boxes 20
The transmission boxes 20 connect mechanically the driving shaft 8 with:
- pumps 4 and 19,
- compressors 6 and 15
- CTEME 1
- Starting motor drive 24.
By means of the transmission boxes 20 we can change the rotation rate between
the pumps, compressors, CTEME and the driving shaft. Thus we can control the
power of the device of the invention. From the transmission boxes we can
interrupt the mechanical connection of these elements with the driving shaft.
In Figure 1 the compressor 15, heat exchangers 16, expanding valve 17 and the
pipes and valves connecting these elements represent a system for heat
redistribution (SHR).
The system for heat redistribution (hereinafter SHR) serves to transfer heat from
the location of liquidifying of the gaseous working substance – the evaporator x
(cold part of the device of the invention) to previous evaporators (warm part of
the device of the invention).
SHR consists of heat exchangers (in the shape of a serpentine arranged within
the evaporator) 16 in Figure 1; a compressor 15 whose output can be regulated;
an adjustable expanding valve 17; closing valves 13; adjustable valves 21.
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The compressor 15 is connected to the driving shaft 8 by the transmission box
20. By means of the transmission box 20 we can change the rotation rate of the
compressor 15 with regard to the rotation rate of the driving shaft 8, SHR is
loaded with working substance – gas with boiling temperature which is equal to
or lower than the boiling temperature of the working substance of the device of
the invention.
Operation and significance of the system for hear redistribution (SHR)
Due to the operation of the compressor 15 and expanding valve 17 arranged
upstream of the heat exchanger 16 in the evaporator x SHR is divided into a part
with a high pressure of the working substance in SHR and a part with low
pressure of the working substance in the SHR.
The part with high pressure of the working substance includes all heat
exchangers 16 arranged in the evaporators 3 of the device of the invention with
the exception of the last evaporator – the warm part of the device of the
invention. The part with low pressure of the working substance is the heat
exchanger in the last evaporator x – the cold part of the device of the invention.
In the part with high pressure the working substance is compressed as a result of
the operation of the compressor 15. This leads to increasing of the temperature
of the working substance. As a result of the heat exchange between the heat
exchangers and the evaporators this heat is passed to the evaporators. In the part
with low pressure (the heat exchanger in the last evaporator x) the working
substance of SHR expands and takes heat away from the working substance of
the device of the invention. Thus is achieved a heat transfer from the cold to the
warm part of the device of the invention. In the warm part the heat is converted
into mechanical energy. In accordance with the readings of the temperature
sensors 12 arranged in the evaporators and of the sensor arranged downstream of
the compressor 15, the system of valves conducts the compressed working
substance in SHR to the heat exchangers located forward in the chain to the first
evaporator with lower temperature than the temperature of the working
substance of SHR downstream of the compressor 15. From there the working
substance of SHR consecutively passes through the heat exchangers 16 of all
evaporators located backward in the system through the expanding valve 17,
from the expanding valve 17 into the heat exchanger 16 in the cold part, from
the heat exchanger 16 into the compressor 15 and thus closing the cycle.
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The adjustable valves 21 of SHR must be regulated in any moment of the
device’s operation in such a manner that the working substance of SHR
circulates through a maximum number of heat exchangers 16 in the warm part
and at the point of entry of the working substance into each of these heat
exchangers 16 the temperature of the working substance of SHR is higher than
the temperature of the corresponding evaporator in which is located the
particular heat exchanger 16. Thus the working substance of SHR passes heat to
the working substance of the device of the invention in the warm part.
In Figure 1 the system is configured in such a manner that the working
substance enters the evaporator (c) which is the third in the row counted from
the warm part side. This configuration is conditional.
When as working substance of SHR is used a gas with a boiling point lower than
the boiling point of the working substance of the device of the invention, we can
achieve a temperature at the exit of the liquid working substance of the device of
the invention which is lower than its boiling temperature. In this situation the
compressor for liquidifying of the gaseous working substance 6 becomes
abundant – the gases will be liquidified in the last heat exchanger due to the low
temperature which is achieved with a suitable balance between all adjustable
elements of the device and the load of the driving shaft. The abundant
compressor 6 can be excluded from the system from its transmission box 20 (8).
The converter of thermal energy into mechanical energy of the last evaporator
also becomes abundant and must be switched off from its transmission box 20
(9) (Figure 1e). To this purpose in accordance with the readings of the
temperature sensor in the cold part of the device (evaporator x) when the sensor
detects a temperature which is lower than the boiling point of the working
substance, a valve closes the flowing of the gases toward the compressor.
Another valve opens the path for their direct conducting to the last heat
exchanger. The mechanical connection of the compressor 6 also is interrupted
from the corresponding transmission box 20 (8) as depicted in Figure 1e.
CTEME discontinues its operation if we close the valve 2 and interrupt its
mechanical connection with the driving shaft from the corresponding box 20 (9).
The power of the device of the invention with a SHR will be:
P = cm (Tsur - Texit)
13
wherein
c is specific thermal capacity
m is the mass of the entering (exiting) working substance for a particular time
Tsur is the temperature of the surrounding medium
Texit is the temperature of the working substance at the exit.
Significance of SHR
The system for heat redistribution sets the power of the device of the invention.
Changing the output of the compressor of SHR we can set a different power at a
particular output of the pumps of the device of the invention. Greater output of
the compressor of SHR means more heat transferred from the cold part of the
device of the invention to the warm part of the device of the invention. This is a
precondition for a greater load.
The power of the device of the invention is in a straight proportion to the
difference between the temperature of the surrounding medium and the
temperature at the exit of the device of the invention and the mass of the
working substance circulating through the device of the invention and the
external heat exchanger.Greater output of the pumps means greater mass and
greater power accordingly. The other factor is the difference between the
temperature of the working substance between the entrance – Tsur, and the exit of
the device of the invention – Texit. Tsur depends on the nature and the capacity of
the external heat exchanger. Texit is a subject to the balance between all
adjustable elements of the device of the invention – the output of the pumps 4,
the output of the compressors 6 and 15, the adjustment of the valves 21, the
adjustment of the expanding valve 17, the adjustment of the reducing valve 10
and the load of the driving shaft. By means of SHR we maintain the desired
temperature at the exit of the device of the invention.
SHR neutralizes the unavoidable thermal losses (in the case of using the heat of
the surrounding medium – the losses of cold). Due to the unavoidable leak of
heat through the thermo insulation the cold part (the last evaporator of the
device of the invention) raises its temperature till it becomes equal to the
temperature of the surrounding medium. This leads to decreasing of the power.
SHR pumps out heat from the cold part to the warm part. In accordance with the
readings of the temperature sensor in the last evaporator we need to adjust the
output of the compressor of SHR in such a manner that it maintains a constant
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temperature of the last evaporator (3x). When the output of the compressor (15)
increases, SHR will take more heat away from the evaporator (3x) and when its
output decreases the SHR will take less heat away from the evaporator (3x). The
heat is redistributed in the warm part of the device of the invention where it is
converted into mechanical energy. Thus we neutralize the thermal losses.
In Figure 1a is represented one possible operating regime of the device of the
invention with the heat exchangers 18 being switched off.
In Figure 1b is represented one possible operating regime of the device of the
invention with the heat exchangers 5 for heat exchange between both physical
conditions of the working substance in the warm part of the device being
switched off. We can close the valves 13 which prevent the gases of CTEME
from passing through the heat exchangers 5. In this manner they will pass
through the by-pass of each heat exchanger and the heat exchange between the
liquid and gaseous working substance will be carried out only under the pressure
of the compressor 6 in the heat exchangers 18.
In Figure 1c is represented a device of the invention with turbines as CTEME. If
the elements of the device (turbines, pipes, valves) are made of materials with a
low thermo conductivity the device will be more effective.
In Figures 1d and 1d1 is represented a device of the invention having cylinders
with pistons as CTEME. The most effective device will be produced with
elements (pistons, cylinders, valves, pipes) made of materials with a low thermo
conductivity.
In Figure 1e is represented a device of the invention with corresponding
transmission boxes 20 (8 and 9), compressor 6 and CTEME 1x being switched
off. Valve 2 of the evaporator 3x is also closed in order to allow the device of
the invention to operate correctly in this operating regime.
In Figure 1f is represented a device of the invention with one possible operating
regime in which the output of the pumps is decreased to such a degree that in the
last evaporator (3x) the output is as high as the amount of the evaporated
working substance therein. Thus the cycle is formed only by the liquid working
substance moved by the pump 19.
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In Figure 1g is represented one possible variation of the device of the invention
wherein the first evaporator exchanges heat with the surrounding medium by
means of a radiator 22. Thereafter the liquid working substance and the gaseous
working substance enter the thermo insulated part of the device of the invention
where the cycle is closed.
The power in this variation is:
P=cm(Tsur - Texit) + Q
wherein
c is the specific thermal capacity of the working substance
m is the mass of the entering working substance for a particular time
Tsur is the temperature of the surrounding medium
Texit is the temperature of the working substance at the exit
Q is the amount of heat in the evaporator through the radiator for a particular
time.
In Figures 1h and 1h1 is represented a method for starting a device of the
invention when the temperature of the working substance of device of the
invention in all evaporators (3) is equal to the temperature of the surrounding
medium and the heat source for the operation of the device of the invention is
the surrounding medium (environment).
When the working substance in all evaporators has the temperature of the
surrounding medium at the start (the most probable condition) of the operation
of the device of the invention, we will use an internal thermo insulated cycle of
the working substance 23 and a starting motor drive 24 to adjust the temperature
balance of the device of the invention. The best thermal balance is present when
due to the temperature of the surrounding medium in the first evaporator (3a) the
temperature of the working substance decreases with each further evaporator upto
the boiling point of the working substance in the last evaporator (3x) – Figure
1h.
In order to achieve this, we will start the device of the invention with the last
two evaporators and CTEME (x) and (c) working as in Figure 1h. Let all
evaporators without the last two be with valves 2 closed and switched off from
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the transmission boxes 20. When the valves 2 of the last two evaporators 3 are
opened, the starter 24 is switched on. The starter 24 rotates the compressor 15
which creates a temperature difference between both evaporators. Thus the
working substance in the evaporator (c) is evaporated, sets the corresponding
CTEME in motion and liquidifies in the heat exchanger 5x. Both CTEME
perform work which is expressed in the cooling of the evaporator (x). The
working substance of the device circulates through both evaporators driven by
the working pumps 4b, 4c and 19 along a closed thermo insulated circle 23. The
remaining pumps are switched off from the transmission boxes and do not
operate. Thus by means of the starter 24 we can cool the last evaporator to the
desired temperature – the boiling point of the working substance, bearing in
mind that the working substance does not exchange heat with the surrounding
medium. The heat of the evaporator is transformed into a mechanical energy by
means of the starter 24.
When the last two evaporators are cooled due to the work done by their
CTEME, we switch on from its transmission box the next evaporator, in the case
of Figure 1h1 the evaporator (3b). The working substance continues to circulate
in the thermo insulated cycle 23 moved by the pumps 4a, 4b, 4c and 19. When
we achieve the desired temperature of the operating evaporators, we switch on
the next evaporator in the sequence. Thus we set the desired temperature balance
of the device – from a temperature of the surrounding medium in the first
evaporator (a) to the boiling temperature of the working substance in the last
evaporator (x). When we achieve the desired temperature balance, we switch off
the starter 24 from its transmission box 20 (13), switch on the connection of the
compressor 15 to the driving shaft from its corresponding transmission box 20
(11), close the valve to the thermo insulated circle 23 and switch on all pumps 4
from their transmission boxes (Figure 1). The working substance begins to
circulate through the heat exchanger 9.
In Figure 2 is represented the device of the invention without the heat
exchangers 5 for low pressure of the working substance. This is one possible
variation of the device of the invention.
In Figure 3 is represented one variation of the device of the invention having a
conventional heat source.
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The difference between both heat sources provides the possibility that the
working substance has a boiling point that is higher than the temperature of the
surrounding medium (e.g. H2O). In this variation a heater warms the working
substance to a temperature that is higher than its boiling point. Furthermore the
connections of the external heat exchanger with the device of the invention must
be thermo insulated. In the most effective variation both the external heat
exchanger and the heater are thermo insulated.
The power in the ideal case will be:
P= cm(Theat - Tboil)
c is the specific thermal capacity of the working substance;
m is the mass of the entering (exiting) working substance for a particular time;
Theat is the temperature of the working substance in the external heat exchanger
9;
Tboil is the boiling temperature of the working substance.
In Figure 4 is depicted a device of the invention having one evaporator and one
CTEME. In this device the evaporator (x) is transformed such as to be a heat
exchanger 25 through which passes a liquid working substance and this liquid
working substance exchanges heat with the working substance of the SHR in the
heat exchanger 16x. Furthermore the gaseous working substance exchanges heat
with the working substance of the SHR by a heat exchanger 5. The power of the
device of the invention is a question of a balance between the output of the
pumps 4 and 19 and the output of the compressor 15 of the SHR.
In order to control the power of each device of the invention, we must control its
adjustable elements in each moment of time during which operates the device,
i.e.:
- control the output of the compressors 6 and 15 from the transmission
boxes 20;
- control the valves 21, 10 and 17;
- control the output of the pumps 4 and 19 from the transmission boxes;
- switch the closing valves 13 and 2 to that they close to stop and open to
allow the flowing of the working substances;
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- interrupt the mechanical connection with the driving shaft 8 from the
transmission boxes 20 of CTEME 1, compressor 6 and 15, pumps 4 and
19.
It should be born in mind that the embodiments set forth above are only
exemplar, the depicted and discussed configurations can be changed without
going out of the scope of the invention. Therefore the present invention should
enjoy the broadest possible protection in accordance with the general principles
of operation of the method and device of the invention and the skilled in the art
will be able to apply these principles to other embodiments of the device of the
invention and these embodiments should be encompassed too by its scope.

P.S.   Naturally ammonia and refrigeration gases would be one of the best working substances for such unit, but when I wrote the patent decided that we should use harmless gases.